Ghostwriting is a process. That end product, such as a book, opinion-editorial in THE WALL STREET JOURNAL or blog post, results from input from any number of people. In a sense the ghostwriter is the project director who ensures the best material makes it into the final structured in the best way.
Therefore, we ghostwriters, given the way we approach tasks, could never make it through Harvard College. There, about 60 students had to withdraw for two to four terms because it was found that they had collaborated on the final exam.
Agreed, as THE NEW YORK TIMES reports, the instruction by the professor stated that collaboration was not allowed. However, that same article in THE TIMES also noted that the students had, in a sense, collaborated with the teaching assistants in seeking information and insight from them regarding the exam. What the students did was disobey an order. If Harvard were the military, the students could have been executed. In the military one must obey orders.
But in the real world, both of how we learn and how we do work, we collaborate. It's absurd to even think that a client would include in the directions for an assignment that I work alone.